According to Wardrop's first principle, agents in a congested network choose their routes selfishly, a behavior that is captured by the Nash equilibrium of the underlying noncooperative game. A Nash equilibrium does not optimize any global criterion per se, and so there is no apparent reason why it should be close to a solution of minimal total travel time, i.Ip camera online
In this paper, we offer positive results on the efficiency of Nash equilibria in traffic networks. In contrast to prior work, we present results for networks with capacities and for latency functions that are nonconvex, nondifferentiable, and even discontinuous.
The inclusion of upper bounds on arc flows has early been recognized as an important means to provide a more accurate description of traffic flows. In this more general model, multiple Nash equilibria may exist and an arbitrary equilibrium does not need to be nearly efficient.
Nonetheless, our main result shows that the best equilibrium is as efficient as in the model without capacities. Moreover, this holds true for broader classes of travel cost functions than considered hitherto. CorreaAndreas S. Search Search. Volume 45, Issue 4 November Volume 45, Issue 3 August Volume 45, Issue 2 May Volume 45, Issue 1 February View PDF.Tjapskbsk update news 2019
Go to Section. Home Mathematics of Operations Research Vol. Andreas S. Previous Back to Top. Price of Pareto Optimality in hedonic games. A traffic congestion analysis by user equilibrium and system optimum with incomplete information.Electronic ppt download
Intermodal Hinterland Network Design Games. Computation and efficiency of potential function minimizers of combinatorial congestion games. Bounding the efficiency gain of differentiable road pricing for EVs and GVs to manage congestion and emissions. Atomic congestion games with random players: network equilibrium and the price of anarchy.
When Is Selfish Routing Bad? The price of anarchy of affine congestion games with similar strategies. Pathwise smooth splittable congestion games and inefficiency. Congestion Games with Priority-Based Scheduling. Effect of reducing the price of anarchy on fairness in highway resource allocation for individual users. Paradox links can improve system efficiency: An illustration in traffic assignment problem. Constraint Games for stable and optimal allocation of demands in SDN.
Atomic Routing Game with Capacity Constraints. A linear framework for dynamic user equilibrium traffic assignment in a single origin-destination capacitated network. Toll caps in privatized road networks. An integrated train service plan optimization model with variable demand: A team-based scheduling approach with dual cost information in a layered network. Promoting social equity with cyclic tradable credits.
Risk-Averse Selfish Routing. Network congestion games are robust to variable demand. Parallel decomposition methods for linearly constrained problems subject to simple bound with application to the SVMs training.Routing in delay-tolerant networking concerns itself with the ability to transportor route, data from a source to a destination, which is a fundamental ability all communication networks must have.
Delay- and disruption-tolerant networks DTNs are characterized by their lack of connectivityresulting in a lack of instantaneous end-to-end paths. This is due to these protocols trying to first establish a complete route and then, after the route has been established, forward the actual data.
However, when instantaneous end-to-end paths are difficult or impossible to establish, routing protocols must take to a "store and forward" approach [ citation needed ]where data is incrementally moved and stored throughout the network in hopes that it will eventually reach its destination. There are many characteristics DTN protocols, including routingmust take into consideration.
A first consideration is if information about future contacts is readily available. For example, in interplanetary communicationsmany times a planet or moon is the cause of contact disruption, and large distance is the cause of communication delay. However, due to the laws of physicsit is possible to predict the future in terms of the times contacts will be available, and how long they will last.
These types of contacts are known as scheduled or predictable contacts. These types of contacts are known as intermittent or opportunistic contacts. A second consideration is if mobility can be exploited and, if so, which nodes are mobile. There are three major cases, classifying the level of mobility in the network.
First, it is possible that there are no mobile entities. In this case, contacts appear and disappear based solely on the quality of the communication channel between them. For instance, in interplanetary networkslarge objects in space, such as planets, can block communicating nodes for a set period of time.
Second, it is possible that some, but not all, nodes in the network are mobile. These nodes, sometimes referred to as Data Mules  are exploited for their mobility.
Since they are the primary source of transitive communication between two non-neighboring nodes in the network, an important routing question is how to properly distribute data among these nodes.
Third, it is possible that the vast majority, if not all, nodes in the network are mobile.
In this case, a routing protocol will most likely have more options available during contact opportunities, and may not have to utilize each one.
A third consideration is the availability of network resources. Many nodes, such as mobile phones, are limited in terms of storage space, transmission rate, and battery life. Others, such as buses on the road, may not be as limited. Routing protocols can utilize this information to best determine how messages should be transmitted and stored to not over-burden limited resources. As of Aprilonly recently has the scientific community started taking resource management into consideration, and this is still an active area of research.After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play.
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Description: The adaptive nature of selfish routing makes traffic demands less predictable Computing the equilibria of physical routing Tags: internetlike adaptive computing controller evironments routing selfish. Latest Highest Rated. Realistic network topologies Realistic traffic demands Realistic network delay functions Realistic routing constraints e. How does selfish traffic co-exist with the remaining traffic that uses traditional routing protocols? How does selfish routing interact with traffic engineering?
Theory results Koutsoupias and Papadimitriou compared the worst-case Nash equilibrium with a global optimal in a two-node network Price of anarchy i.
What is the system-wide cost for selfish source routing? Effects of network topologies Selfish routing tends to overload links. Effects of latency functions 23 Summary Selfish Source Routing Unlike the theoretical worst cases, selfish source routing yields close to optimal latency Selfish routing tends to overload links on the shortest paths 24 Outline Overview Related work Network model Approach to compute traffic equilibrium Performance results Source routing Overlay routing Multiple overlays Interaction with traffic engineering Conclusion and future work 25 Selfish Overlay Routing Questions Does selfish overlay routing perform well?
How does the coverage of overlay network affect the performance? Dimensions Effects of network topologies Effects of amount of overlay coverage Effects of how overlay nodes are selected e. Random selection of overlay nodes 30 Summary Selfish Overlay Routing For full overlay coverage Overlay has full routing control when the underlay satisfies direct link shortest The only way in which OSPF affects overlay routing is by violating DLS, which reduces available network resources The effects of partial coverage is small in backbone topologies 31 Outline Overview Related work Network model Approach to compute traffic equilibrium Performance results Source routing Overlay routing Multiple overlays Interaction with traffic engineering Conclusion and future work 32 Interactions among Competing Overlays Question Can multiple overlays share network resources fairly and effectively?
Dimensions Effects of network topologies Effects of network-level routing schemes Effects of network load and traffic distribution among overlays Effects of the number of competing overlays 33 Interactions among Competing Overlays Cont. Traffic Engineering So far we assume network is dumb i. Traffic Engineering OSPF route optimization interacts poorly with selfish routing MPLS interacts with selfish routing more effectively 42 Conclusion When the network-level routing is static, selfish routing achieves close to optimal latency The good latency achieved in selfish-routing comes at the cost of increased congestion When selfish routing and traffic engineering each tries to minimize its own cost by adapting to the other process, the resulted performance could be much worse 43 Future Work Study impacts of multi-AS nature of the Internet Study dynamics of selfish routing i.I would highly recommend Nordic Visitor to anyone traveling - they were professional, and so very very helpful.
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Selfish Routing in Capacitated Networks
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Routing in delay-tolerant networking
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Example: "my new script" outputs optional A list of variables with their name, type, and optional description, defined in the source code of script, that will conform the outputs of execution. This will be 201 upon successful creation of the script and 200 afterwards. Make sure that you check the code that comes with the status attribute to make sure that the script creation has been completed without errors.
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